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Occurrence and Phenotypic Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Patients in a Public Hospital in Mogadishu, Somalia

Authors Moussa AA, Abdulahi Abdi A, Awale MA, Garba B

Received 7 October 2020

Accepted for publication 19 January 2021

Published 2 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 825—832

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S275090

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony


Ayan Aden Moussa,1,2 Abdkerem Abdulahi Abdi,1,2 Mohamed Abdullahi Awale,1,2 Bashiru Garba3

1Institute for Medical Research, SIMAD University, Mogadishu, Somalia; 2Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, SIMAD University, Mogadishu, Somalia; 3Department of Veterinary Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria

Correspondence: Ayan Aden Moussa
Institute for Medical Research, SIMAD University, Jidka Warshadaha, Mogadishu, 2526, Somalia
Email [email protected]

Purpose: This study reports a cross-sectional investigation to determine the antimicrobial resistance pattern of the common bacterial contaminants isolated from hospitalized patients in Mogadishu, Somalia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 328 clinical samples comprising urine, blood, vaginal swab, pus aspirates, and stool were collected from a public hospital located in Mogadishu the capital city of Somalia between October 2019 to March 2020. The isolation and biochemical characterization of the bacterial isolates were performed using the conventional culture and biochemical assay tests. Similarly, antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion.
Results: A total of 275 pathogenic bacteria that include Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Proteus vulgare, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Salmonella spp. were detected with an overall detection rate of 78.4% (257/328). Among the bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical specimens, 152 (46.3%) were Staphylococcus aureus, 60 (18.3%) were E. coli, 10 (3.1%) Proteus vulgaris, 6 (1.8%) Klebsiella pneumonia, and 1 (0.3%) isolate was found to be Salmonella sp. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay revealed variable resistance pattern with clindamycin (40%), ampicillin (27%), vancomycin (26%), levofloxacin (23%), amoxicillin (20%), ciprofloxacin (18%) and nitrofurantoin (12%) showing the highest rate of resistance. Moreover, evaluation of multidrug resistance showed that Staphylococcus aureus had the highest multidrug resistance rate, with 19 isolates showing resistance to more than two drugs, followed by E. coli with three isolates. In contrast, each of Proteus vulgare, Salmonella sp. and Klebsiella pneumonia had one isolate each that exhibited multidrug resistance characteristics.
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed the occurrence of a number antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens whose prevalence varies with age and sex. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive antimicrobial profiling of bacterial isolates during the management of patients in the hospital.

Keywords: nosocomial infection, antimicrobial resistance, Somalia, multidrug-resistant pathogens, hygiene, sanitation

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