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Novel piperine-loaded Tween-integrated monoolein cubosomes as brain-targeted oral nanomedicine in Alzheimer’s disease: pharmaceutical, biological, and toxicological studies

Authors Elnaggar Y, Etman S, Abdelmonsif D, Y. Abdallah O

Received 25 April 2015

Accepted for publication 13 June 2015

Published 27 August 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 5459—5473

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S87336

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J Webster

Yosra SR Elnaggar,1 Samar M Etman,1 Doaa A Abdelmonsif,2 Ossama Y Abdallah1

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most patient devastating central nervous system diseases with no curative therapy. An effective oral therapy with brain-targeting potential is required that is hampered by blood–brain barrier. Piperine (PIP) is a natural alkaloid with memory enhancing potentials. Oral PIP delivery suffers from its hydrophobicity and first-pass metabolism. In this study, novel Tween-modified monoolein cubosomes (T-cubs) were elaborated as bioactive nanocarriers for brain-targeted oral delivery of PIP. Seven liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubosomes) were prepared testing different bioactive surfactants (Tween 80, poloxamer, and Cremophor). Full in vitro characterization was carried out based on particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release. Morphological examination and structure elucidation were performed using transmission and polarizing microscopes. Sporadic dementia of Alzheimer’s type was induced in 42 male Wistar rats on which full behavioral and biochemical testing was conducted. Brain toxicity was assessed based on Caspase-3 assay for apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor-α for inflammation. Liver and kidney toxicity studies were conducted as well. Among others, T-cubs exhibited optimum particle size (167.00±10.49 nm), polydispersity index (0.18±0.01), and zeta potential (-34.60±0.47 mv) with high entrapment efficiency (86.67%±0.62%). Cubs could significantly sustain PIP in vitro release. In vivo studies revealed T-cubs potential to significantly enhance PIP cognitive effect and even restore cognitive function to the normal level. Superiority of T-cubs over others suggested brain-targeting effect of Tween. Toxicological studies contended safety of cubs on kidney, liver, and even brain. T-cubs exhibited potential anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity of loaded PIP, indicating potential to stop AD progression that was first suggested in this article. Novel oral nanoparticles elaborated possess promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics with high safety for effective chronic treatment of AD.

Keywords: piperine, monoolein, cubosome, nanoparticles, Alzheimer’s disease, liquid crystalline
 

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