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Nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: classification and management

Authors Erro R, Santangelo G, Barone P, Vitale C

Received 18 July 2014

Accepted for publication 13 November 2014

Published 19 January 2015 Volume 2015:5 Pages 1—10

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JPRLS.S44382

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Abdul Qayyum Rana


Roberto Erro,1,2 Gabriella Santangelo,3,4 Paolo Barone,5 Carmine Vitale4,6

1Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom; 2Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche e del Movimento, Università di Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Neuropsychology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy; 4IDC Hermitage – Capodimonte, Naples, Italy; 5University of Salerno, Center for Neurodegenerative diseases – CEMAND, Salerno, Italy; 6University of Naples "Parthenope," Department of Motor Sciences, Naples, Italy

Abstract: Despite the emphasis on the motor phenotype of Parkinson's disease (PD), it has been increasingly recognized that PD patients experience several nonmotor symptoms (NMS), which have even greater significance when assessed by quality-of-life measures and institutionalization rates. The burden of NMS tends to increase with age and disease severity and, in the very advanced stage of disease, NMS such as urinary problems, drooling, somnolence, psychosis, and dementia dominate the clinical phenotype. Moreover, the dopaminergic treatment used for the motor symptoms of PD can arise or worsen a number of NMS, including orthostatic hypotension, nausea, sleep disturbances, hallucinations, or impulsive compulsive behaviors. Here we review the most common NMS of PD with a focus on their pharmacological management.

Keywords: disease management, PD, NMS

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