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Nitisinone: a review

Authors Aktuglu-Zeybek AC, Zubarioglu T

Received 27 May 2016

Accepted for publication 3 November 2016

Published 31 January 2017 Volume 2017:7 Pages 25—35

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/ODRR.S92995

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lise Aagaard

A Cigdem Aktuglu-Zeybek, Tanyel Zubarioglu

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nutrition and Metabolism, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Kocamustafapasa Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract:
Nitisinone (2-[2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione), an effective triketone herbicide, is a potent inhibitor of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, the second enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. Since 1992, the drug has become an effective pharmacological treatment for hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1). Nitisinone can prevent the development of liver disease, reverse and prevent the renal tubular dysfunction, severe neurological crisis and cardiomyopathy and significantly reduce the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in HT1 patients. Its mode of action, with few side effects reported, make the drug a potential candidate for the treatment of other disorders of tyrosine metabolism, including alkaptonuria, with successful reduction in homogentisic acid production to prevent long-term complications. Nitisinone could also be a promising agent in the treatment of tumors with active tyrosine metabolic pathways. In this review, we discuss the effects of nitisinone for various tyrosine pathway disorders.

Keywords: nitisinone, hereditary tyrosinemia type 1, alkaptonuria, tyrosine

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