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Dementia in Parkinson’s disease – a comprehensive review

Authors Yousuf M, Daniyal U

Received 15 August 2012

Accepted for publication 15 August 2012

Published 2 April 2012 Volume 2012:2 Pages 6—10

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JPRLS.S37049


Muhammad Saad Yousuf,1,2 Usama Daniyal1

1
Parkinson’s Clinic and Movement Disorder Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Abstract: Parkinson’s disease is neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Dementia is one of the most debilitating non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. It affects intellectual and cognitive functioning at various levels. In this regard, this review acts as a comprehensive overview of history, pathology, symptomology, and treat-ments while suggesting future avenues for further research.
The review assesses disease pathology covering aspects of clinical manifestations, risk factors, morphological changes in the brain, and etiology. Dementia is correlated with increasing age, severity of underlying complications (Hoehn and Yahr Stage), and is more prevalent in males. On average, approximately, 1 in 4 patients with Parkinson’s disease will develop dementia.
With better health care and technological advancements, life expectancy has been shown to be on a rise. Also, the baby boomers are reaching retirement age and are most at risk of neurological disorders. As a result, it is estimated that dementia will become as prevalent as affecting 81.1 million individuals by the year 2040. Parkinson’s disease by itself is debilitating and in conjunction with dementia completely hampers independent living. Thus, future avenues for further understanding and preventing dementia in Parkinson’s disease are necessary.

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