Nanoparticle-labeled stem cells: a novel therapeutic vehicle
Abir O El-Sadik1, Afaf El-Ansary2, Sherif M Sabry3
1Stem Cell Unit, Anatomy Department, College of Medicine, Health Science Colleges; 2Biochemistry Department, Science College, King Saud University; 3Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Abstract: Nanotechnology has been described as a general purpose technology. It has already generated a range of inventions and innovations. Development of nanotechnology will provide clinical medicine with a range of new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities such as medical imaging, medical diagnosis, drug delivery, and cancer detection and management. Nanoparticles such as manganese, polystyrene, silica, titanium oxide, gold, silver, carbon, quantum dots, and iron oxide have received enormous attention in the creation of new types of analytical tools for biotechnology and life sciences. Labeling of stem cells with nanoparticles overcame the problems in homing and fixing stem cells to their desired site and guiding extension of stem cells to specific directions. Although the biologic effects of some nanoparticles have already been assessed, information on toxicity and possible mechanisms of various particle types remains inadequate. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the mechanisms of internalization and distribution of nanoparticles inside stem cells, as well as the influence of different types of nanoparticles on stem cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, and cytotoxicity, and to assess the role of nanoparticles in tracking the fate of stem cells used in tissue regeneration.
Keywords: nanoparticles, stem cells, uptake, differentiation, cytotoxicity, tracking
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