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Nanoformulation of Biogenic Cefotaxime-Conjugated-Silver Nanoparticles for Enhanced Antibacterial Efficacy Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Anticancer Studies

Authors Halawani EM, Hassan AM, Gad El-Rab SMF

Received 26 October 2019

Accepted for publication 20 February 2020

Published 18 March 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 1889—1901


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo

Eman M Halawani,1,2,* Aziza M Hassan,3,4 Sanaa MF Gad El-Rab3,5,*

1Division of Microbiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia; 2Yousef Abdullatif Jameel Chair of Prophetic Medicine Application, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia; 4Cell Biology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; 5Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Sanaa MF Gad El-Rab
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia
Tel +966558857908
Fax +966127433699

Objectives: Due to the expanded bacterial genetic tolerance to antibiotics through different mechanisms, infectious diseases of MDR bacteria are difficult for treatment. Consequently, we synthesized drug conjugated nanoparticles to dissolve this problem. Moreover, the present study aims to display the cell death status treated with cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs and also, apoptosis pathways of human RPE-1 normal cells and human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Methods: Here, we demonstrate the possibility to synthesize AgNPs and conjugate them with cefotaxime to survey the probability of cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs as an antimicrobial agent against cefotaxime-resistant strains E. coli and MRSA.
Results: TEM showed the size of AgNPs, CS-AgNPs and cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs ranged from 7.42 to  18.3 nm, 8.05– 23.89 nm and 8.48– 25.3 nm, respectively, with a spherical shape. The cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs enhanced the high antimicrobial properties compared to AgNPs or pure antibiotic. The MIC of Cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs ranged from 3 μg/mL to 8 μg/mL against tested E. coli and MRSA bacteria. Consequently, the highest reduction in the MIC of cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs was noted against tested strains ranging from 22% to 96%. Comparing cefotaime-CS-AgNPs to AgNPs we showed that cefotaime-CS-AgNPs have no cytotoxic effect on normal cells at even 12 μg/mL for 24 hrs. The IC50 for the AgNPs and cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs was 12 μg/mL for human RPE-1 normal cells and human MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The pro-apoptotic genes p53, p21, and Bax of cancer cell lines significantly upregulated followed by downregulated by anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 after 48 hrs at 24 μg/mL, and this concentration represents the most effective dose.
Conclusion: Results enhanced the conjugating utility in old unresponsive cefotaxime to AgNPs to restore its efficiency against previous strains and demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs. Moreover, this research gives remarkable insights for designing nanoscale delivery and curative systems that have a pronounced cytotoxic activity on cancer cells and are safe to normal cells.

Keywords: AgNPs and cefotaxime-Cs-AgNPs, MRSA, E. coli, anticancer, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity

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