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Morning akinesia in Parkinson's disease: challenges and solutions

Authors Tambasco N, Simoni S, Nigro P, Paolini Paoletti F, Marsili E, Calabresi P

Received 11 December 2015

Accepted for publication 13 March 2016

Published 15 June 2016 Volume 2016:6 Pages 57—63


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 5

Editor who approved publication: Dr Peter Hedera

Nicola Tambasco,1 Simone Simoni,1 Pasquale Nigro,1 Federico Paolini Paoletti,1 Erica Marsili,1 Paolo Calabresi1,2

1Neurology Clinic, Azienda Ospedaliera – Università di Perugia, Perugia, 2Neurophysiology Department, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy

Abstract: Motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been reported to occur after a few years of treatment with levodopa (L-dopa). Morning akinesia is a delayed ON of the first L-dopa daily dose, occurring in almost 60% of patients on dopaminergic treatment. This is primarily a motor symptom, but has been recently recognized as being correlated with nonmotor fluctuations. Sleep disorders and gastrointestinal dysfunction might be the underlying mechanisms. Over the past 30 years, several pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches have been investigated.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, morning akinesia, motor fluctuation, L-dopa

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