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Mitochondrial Dynamic Dysfunction as a Main Triggering Factor for Inflammation Associated Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases

Authors Geto Z, Molla MD, Challa F, Belay Y, Getahun T

Received 21 September 2019

Accepted for publication 25 December 2019

Published 14 February 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 97—107


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Ning Quan

Zeleke Geto,1 Meseret Derbew Molla,2 Feyissa Challa,1 Yohannes Belay,3 Tigist Getahun1

1National Reference Laboratory for Clinical Chemistry, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 3National Reference Laboratory for Hematology and Immunology, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Zeleke Geto Email

Abstract: Mitochondria are organelles with highly dynamic ultrastructure maintained by flexible fusion and fission rates governed by Guanosine Triphosphatases (GTPases) dependent proteins. Balanced control of mitochondrial quality control is crucial for maintaining cellular energy and metabolic homeostasis; however, dysfunction of the dynamics of fusion and fission causes loss of integrity and functions with the accumulation of damaged mitochondria and mitochondrial deoxyribose nucleic acid (mtDNA) that can halt energy production and induce oxidative stress. Mitochondrial derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) can mediate redox signaling or, in excess, causing activation of inflammatory proteins and further exacerbate mitochondrial deterioration and oxidative stress. ROS have a deleterious effect on many cellular components, including lipids, proteins, both nuclear and mtDNA and cell membrane lipids producing the net result of the accumulation of damage associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) capable of activating pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) on the surface and in the cytoplasm of immune cells. Chronic inflammation due to oxidative damage is thought to trigger numerous chronic diseases including cardiac, liver and kidney disorders, neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease), cardiovascular diseases/atherosclerosis, obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: mitochondria, dynamics, inflammation, non-communicable diseases

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