Nicola Maffulli1, Umile Giuseppe Longo2, Stefano Campi2, Vincenzo Denaro2
1Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mile End Hospital, London, England; 2Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Biomedico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, Rome, Italy
Abstract: The menisci are two semilunar-shaped fibrocartilagenous structures, which are interposed between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaux. They have an important role in knee function. Long-term follow-up studies showed that virtually all meniscectomized knees develop arthritic changes with time. The meniscus has functions in load bearing, load transmission, shock absorption, joint stability, joint lubrication, and joint congruity. Because of these functions, meniscal tissue should be preserved whenever possible. A well-trained surgeon can safely rely on clinical examination for diagnosing meniscal injuries. History and clinical examination are at least as accurate as magnetic resonance imaging in the skilled orthopedic surgeon’s hand. When meniscal repair is not possible, partial resection of the meniscus is indicated. Meniscal repair has evolved from open to arthroscopic techniques, which include the inside-out and outside-in suture repairs and the all-inside techniques. Meniscal transplantation is generally accepted as a management alternative option for selected symptomatic patients with previous complete or near-complete meniscectomy.
Keywords: meniscus, arthroscopy, meniscectomy, meniscal repair, sports
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