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Macular choroidal thickness in pregnant women with type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

Authors Benfica CZ, Zanella T, Farias LB, Oppermann MLR, Canani LH, Lavinsky D

Received 26 February 2018

Accepted for publication 18 April 2018

Published 17 July 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 1259—1265

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S166620

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Camila Zanella Benfica,1,2 Teresinha Zanella,3 Lucas Brandolt Farias,1,2 Maria Lúcia Rocha Oppermann,1,3 Luis Henrique Santos Canani,1,4 Daniel Lavinsky1,2

1Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 4Department of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil

Purpose: To analyze choroidal thickness (CT) of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included 144 eyes of 72 pregnant women in the third trimester divided into four groups: 27 non-diabetic pregnant women; 15 pregnant women with GDM; 16 with type 2 DM and 14 with type 1 DM. CT was measured using optical coherence tomography at ten different locations. We also analyzed possible confounding factors, such as gestational age, glycosylated hemoglobin, time from DM diagnosis, hypertension and severity of diabetic retinopathy.
Results: The comparison between the four groups showed a thinner choroid in patients with type 1 DM in all locations, with statistical significance in subfoveal and temporal measurements. When comparing only patients with type 1 and type 2 DM, adjusting for confounding factors, the choroid of patients with type 1 DM remained thinner at all macular points, also with statistical significance in subfoveal and temporal measurements.
Conclusion: Pregnant women with type 1 DM had significantly thinner CT measurements on subfoveal and temporal locations. No differences were found in CT between the control group and pregnant women with GDM and type 2 DM.

Keywords: choroid, enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, diabetes mellitus

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