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Low estimated glomerular filtration rate and pneumonia in stroke patients: findings from a prospective stroke registry in the East of England

Authors Vart P, Bettencourt-Silva JH, Metcalf AK, Bowles KM, Potter JF, Myint PK

Received 6 November 2017

Accepted for publication 26 March 2018

Published 1 August 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 887—896

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S156176

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Vera Ehrenstein


Priya Vart,1,2 Joao H Bettencourt-Silva,3,4 Anthony K Metcalf,3,4 Kristian M Bowles,3,4 John F Potter,3,4 Phyo K Myint1,3,4

1Ageing Clinical and Experimental Research, Institute of Applied Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences & Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; 2Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 3Stroke Research Group, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, UK; 4Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK

Purpose: Low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) is a recognized risk factor for pneumonia in general population. While pneumonia is common after stroke, the association between levels of eGFR and pneumonia in stroke patient population has not yet been examined thoroughly.
Patients and methods: Using data of 10,329 patients from the Norfolk and Norwich Stroke Registry between January 2003 and April 2015, we examined the association of poststroke pneumonia (in-hospital and after discharge) with low eGFR and when eGFR is divided into the complete spectrum of clinically relevant categories; (≥90) (ref.), 60–89, 45–59, 30–44, 15–30, and <15 mL/min/1.73 m2).
Results: In all, 1,519 (14.7%) developed in-hospital pneumonia and 1,037 (12.9%) developed pneumonia after hospital discharge. In age- and sex-adjusted model, low eGFR was associated with in-hospital pneumonia (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR): 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01–1.25) and pneumonia after discharge (sHR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07–1.38). In fully adjusted model, association remained significant for pneumonia after hospital discharge. When eGFR was categorized in all clinically relevant categories, association with in-hospital pneumonia tended to be “U” shaped (eg, compared to eGFR ≥90, sHR for 60–89 was 0.78; 95% CI: 0.62–0.99 and for <15 was 1.06; 95% CI: 0.71–1.60) and association with pneumonia after discharge tended to increase with decline in eGFR level such that risk was almost two fold higher at eGFR <15 (sHR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.01–3.51). Association for in-hospital pneumonia was driven mainly by aspiration pneumonia, whereas association in stroke survivors was predominantly for nonaspiration pneumonia.
Conclusion: In stroke patients, low eGFR at admission was associated with pneumonia, particularly severely reduced eGFR with nonaspiration pneumonia after hospital discharge. eGFR could form the basis for identifying patients at high risk of poststroke pneumonia.

Keywords: stroke, eGFR, prognosis, epidemiology

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