Long-term outcomes following completion of a structured nutrition and exercise lifestyle intervention program for patients with metabolic syndrome
Received 31 May 2018
Accepted for publication 14 August 2018
Published 15 November 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 753—759
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou
Megan S Joseph,1 Monica A Konerman,2 Min Zhang,1 Boxian Wei,1 Ellen Brinza,1 Patrick Walden,1 Elizabeth A Jackson,1 Melvyn Rubenfire1
1Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and multiple other chronic health conditions. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of structured diet and exercise programs to improve the components of metabolic syndrome. The durability of these benefits after program completion is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in cardiovascular risk factors 12 months post completion of a 12- or 24-week structured lifestyle intervention program.
Methods: Individuals with metabolic syndrome were referred to the Metabolic Fitness program, a 12- or 24-week lifestyle intervention program consisting of weekly exercise and nutrition education sessions. Patients were assessed at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks for those in the 24-week program. Data collection included weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body composition percentage, sBP, dBP, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Unstructured follow-up data were obtained by retrospective chart review for up to 12 months post program completion.
Results: Two-hundred twenty-five patients were enrolled in the 12-week program and 121 in the 24-week program. At the conclusion of the 12-week program, patients showed significant improvement in sBP and dBP. At the conclusion of the 24-week program, patients showed significant improvement in body mass index, weight, sBP, dBP, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. However, 12 months after program completion, while the majority of parameters were still improved compared with baseline, only change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol remained significantly improved compared with the end of 12-week program, and sBP had increased back above baseline in both programs.
Conclusion: Patients with metabolic syndrome participating in a structured lifestyle intervention program show significant improvement in their cardiovascular risk and metabolic profile at program completion. The durability of these improvements appears to wane over time, however, stressing the need for programs that can facilitate maintenance of long-term behavior change.
Keywords: metabolic syndrome, lifestyle interventions, obesity
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