Long-term effects on survival after a 1-year multifactorial vascular risk factor intervention after stroke or TIA: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, a 7-year follow-up study
Received 1 November 2018
Accepted for publication 11 January 2019
Published 7 February 2019 Volume 2019:15 Pages 11—18
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Justinn Cochran
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Harry Struijker-Boudier
Guri Hagberg,1,2 Brynjar Fure,3 Else Charlotte Sandset,4 Bente Thommessen,5 Håkon Ihle-Hansen,1,2 Anne Rita Øksengård,1 Ståle Nygård,6 Torgeir B Wyller,2,7 Hege Ihle-Hansen1,7
1Department of Internal Medicine, Bærum Hospital, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Drammen, Norway; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Karlstad Central Hospital and Institute of Public Health, University of Tromsoe, Tromsoe, Norway; 4Department of Neurology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 5Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway; 6Department of Informatics, The Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 7Department of Geriatric Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
Background: Stroke and coronary heart disease share the same risk factors, and a multifactorial intervention after stroke may potentially result in the same reduction in cardiovascular mortality as seen after coronary events. We aimed to evaluate the effect on survival 7 years after a 1-year multifactorial risk factor intervention, and identify clinical predictors for long-term survival in a hospital-based cohort of patients with first-ever stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
Materials and methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial including patients between February 2007 and July 2008 comparing an intensive risk factor intervention vs usual care the first year poststroke to prevent cognitive impairment. From February 2014 to July 2016, all patients were invited to a follow-up. For patients dying throughout the follow-up period, date of death was obtained from the medical record. Examination at baseline and 1-year follow-up included extensive assessment of vascular risk factors and cognitive assessments.
Results: A total of 195 patients were randomized. Mean (SD) age was 71.6 (12.5) years, 53.3% were male, mean (SD) body mass index (BMI) was 25.6 (4.1) kg/m². During follow-up, 35 patients in the intervention group and 41 in the control group died. Kaplan–Meier survival estimates show no significant difference in intention-to-treat (ITT) population or complete case (CC) population (log-rank P=0.29 vs log-rank P=0.07). In multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, lower age and higher BMI was independently associated with long-term survival, adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.08 (1.05–1.11) per year and 0.91 (0.85–0.97) per kg/m².
Conclusion: In this post hoc analysis, we found no significant effect on survival after 7 years of a multifactorial risk factor program given during the first year after first-ever stroke or TIA. Higher BMI was an independent predictor for long-term survival in this cohort.
Keywords: RCT, stroke, cardiovascular risk, risk factor management, secondary prevention
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