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Knockdown of PRL-3 increases mitochondrial superoxide anion production through transcriptional regulation of RAP1

Authors Yang Y, Lian S, Meng L, Tian Z, Feng Q, Wang Y, Wang P, Qu L, Shou C

Received 12 February 2018

Accepted for publication 10 August 2018

Published 30 October 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 5071—5081

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S165344

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Kenan Onel


Yongyong Yang,1,* Shenyi Lian,2,* Lin Meng,1,* Zhihua Tian,3 Qin Feng,2 Yue Wang,2 Ping Wang,2 Like Qu,1 Chengchao Shou1

1Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing 100142, China; 2Department of Pathology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing 100142, China; 3Central Laboratory, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing 100142, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) has been shown to be highly expressed in various types of cancers and is related to poor prognosis. Our previous study showed that silencing of PRL-3 leads to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanism of PRL-3 regulating ROS is not clear.
Materials and methods: PRL-3 or Repressor activator protein 1 (RAP1) was knockdown in human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and SW480. The mRNA level was measured by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR and the protein level was measured by western blot. ROS was detected by specific oxidationsensitive fluorescent probes. Cell cycle was analyzed through flow cytometry. Luciferase assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were performed to investigate the regulation of RAP1 by PRL-3. Gene expression correlation was analyzed through an interactive web server. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software.
Results: Knockdown of PRL-3 significantly increases mitochondrial superoxide anion, mitochondria membrane potential, and induces cell cycle arrest. Decreased PRL-3-induced mitochondrial superoxide anion accumulation is related to the downregulation of RAP1, which could also affect the level of mitochondria superoxide anion. PRL-3 regulates the expression of RAP1 through binding to the promoter of rap1 gene. PRL-3 could regulate the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) through the mediation of RAP1. Both PRL-3 and RAP1 could regulate the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which may be related to PRL-3 suppression induced mitochondria superoxide anion.
Conclusion: Our study presents the first evidence that PRL-3 is involved in the regulation of mitochondria superoxide anion as a transcriptional factor.

Keywords:
PRL-3, cell cycle, mitochondria, RAP1, PGC-1α, superoxide anion

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