Is there a link between hyperuricemia, morning blood pressure surge, and non-dipping blood pressure pattern in metabolic syndrome patients?
Received 10 December 2012
Accepted for publication 5 February 2013
Published 26 April 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 71—77
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Emre Tutal,1 Burak Sayin,1 Derun Taner Ertugrul,2 Avsin Ibis,1 Siren Sezer,1 Nurhan Özdemir1
1Department of Nephrology, Baskent University Hospital, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Keçiören Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
Background: Hypertensive patients usually have a blunted nocturnal decrease, or even increase, in blood pressure during sleep. There is also a tendency for increased occurrence of cardiovascular events between 6 and 12 am due to increased morning blood pressure surge (MBPS). Co-occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hypertension is also a common problem. Hyperuricemia might trigger the development of hypertension, chronic renal failure, and insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between hyperuricemia, MetS, nocturnal blood pressure changes, and MBPS.
Method: A total of 81 newly diagnosed hypertensive MetS patients were included in this study. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring of patients was done and patients’ height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile, creatinine, potassium, uric acid, hematocrit levels were studied.
Results: Non-dipper (ie, those whose blood pressure did not drop overnight) patients had higher waist–hip ratios (WHR) (P = 0.003), uric acid (P = 0.0001), FBG (P = 0.001), total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P = 0.0001). Risk analysis revealed that hyperuricemia was a risk factor for non-dipping pattern (P < 0.0001, odds ratio = 8.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.9–33.7). Patients in the highest quadrant for uric acid levels had higher FBG (P = 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.017), WHR (P = 0.01), MBPS (P = 0.003), and night diastolic blood pressure compared with lowest quadrant patients (P = 0.013). Uric acid levels were also positively correlated with night ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) (r = 0.268, P = 0.05), night diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.3, P = 0.05), and MBPS (r = 0.3, P = 0.05).
Conclusion: Evaluation of hypertensive patients should also include an assessment of uric acid level and anthropometric measurements such as abdominal obesity. Hyperuricemia seems to be closely related to undesired blood pressure patterns and this may signal to the clinician that an appropriate therapeutic approach is required.
Keywords: hypertension, uric acid, non-dipper
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