Inherited variation in pattern recognition receptors and cancer: dangerous liaisons?
Anton G Kutikhin, Arseniy E Yuzhalin
Department of Epidemiology, Kemerovo State Medical Academy, Kemerovo, Russian Federation
Abstract: The group of pattern recognition receptors includes families of Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors, and RIG-I-like receptors. They are key sensors for a number of infectious agents, some of which are carcinogenic, and they launch an immune response against them. Inherited structural variation in genes encoding these receptors and proteins of their signaling pathways may affect their function, modulating cancer risk and features of cancer progression. Relevant malignancies, valuable gene polymorphisms, prime questions about future directions, and answers to these questions are analyzed in this review. It is possible to suggest that polymorphisms of genes encoding pattern recognition receptors and proteins of their signaling pathways may be associated with almost all cancer types, particularly with those in which carcinogenic infectious agents are responsible for the substantial share of cases (namely gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, cervical cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma). The concept of selection of polymorphisms for further oncogenomic investigation, based on a combination of results from basic and epidemiological studies, is proposed.
Keywords: pattern recognition receptors, Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors, cancer, gene polymorphisms
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