Increase in direct diabetes-related costs and resource use in the 6 months following initiation of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes in five European countries: data from the INSTIGATE study
Received 20 July 2012
Accepted for publication 5 November 2012
Published 20 December 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 383—393
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Stephen Jones,1 Conxa Castell,2 Albert Goday,3 Helen T Smith,4 Claudia Nicolay,5 Alexander Simpson,4 Carole Salaun-Martin6
1James Cook University Hospital, Middlesborough, UK; 2Department of Health, Barcelona, Spain; 3Hospital Del Mar, Barcelona, Spain; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Erl Wood, UK; 5Lilly Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany; 6Lilly France, Suresnes, France
Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the resource use and associated direct costs of diabetes care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the 6 months before and after initiation of insulin therapy.
Methods: INSTIGATE is a prospective, noninterventional, multicenter study of patients with type 2 diabetes who were initiating insulin for the first time as part of their usual care in 2006. The study was conducted in France, Germany, Greece, Spain, and the UK, and observed the course of diabetes therapy for up to 6 months. Direct medical costs were evaluated from the national health care system (third-party payer) perspective at 2006 prices.
Results: Of the 1153 patients with type 2 diabetes, 1051 (91.2%) had follow-up visits in the 6 months after insulin initiation and were included in the cost analysis. In all countries in our study, mean total direct costs per patient increased in the 6-month follow-up period, compared with the 6-month period prior to insulin initiation, and ranged from €577 in Greece to €1402 in France. The incremental cost of adding insulin treatment ranged from €81 in France to €471 in Spain.
Conclusion: In all countries, the mean total direct cost of care for diabetes increased after starting insulin. The breakdown of total direct costs by expenditure category varied considerably across countries, reflecting differences in resource use patterns, prices of medical resources, and different health care systems.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, costs, resource use, insulin
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