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Incidence, Risk and Protective Factors for Unintentional, Nonfatal, Fall-Related Injuries at Home: A Community-Based Household Survey from Ujjain, India

Authors Pathak A, Agarwal N, Mehra L, Mathur A, Diwan V

Received 12 December 2019

Accepted for publication 11 February 2020

Published 20 February 2020 Volume 2020:11 Pages 65—72

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PHMT.S242173

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Roosy Aulakh


Ashish Pathak,1– 4 Nitin Agarwal,5 Love Mehra,1 Aditya Mathur,1 Vishal Diwan3,6,7

1Department of Pediatrics, R. D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India; 2Department of Women and Children’s Health, International Maternal and Child Health Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 85, Sweden; 3Department of Global Public Health, Health Systems and Policy-Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SE-171 76, Sweden; 4International Centre for Health Research, Ujjain Charitable Trust Hospital and Research Centre, Ujjain 456006, MP, India; 5Department of Pediatric Surgery, R. D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, 456006, India; 6Department of Public Health & Environment, R. D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India; 7ICMR- National Institute for Research in Environmental Health (NIREH), Bhopal, India

Correspondence: Ashish Pathak Tel +91 930-223-9899
Email ashish.pathak@ki.se

Background: Childhood injury is an increasing public health burden and considered a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this study, we identified the distribution and risk factors for fall-related child injuries at home in Ujjain, India.
Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 in Ujjain, India, which included 6308 children up to 18 years of age living in 2518 households. Data were collected using a pretested, semi-structured, proforma from the parents of the included children.
Results: The overall incidence of home injury was 7.78% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.12– 8.84) in the last 1 year, ie, 2015– 16. The incidence was significantly higher at 5– 10 years of age (odds ratio [OR]: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.75– 4.85; P < 0.001), followed by 1– 5 years (OR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.59– 4.45; P < 0.001). The incidence of injuries was higher in boys than in girls (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.43– 2.10; P < 0.001). Other risk factors associated with unintentional fall injuries at home were residence (rural vs urban; aOR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.03– 1.51; P = 0.018), number of family members (≤ 4 vs 5– 10 and ≤ 4 vs > 10; aOR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.56– 0.86; P < 0.001 and aOR: 0.67, CI: 0.48– 0.94; P < 0.023, respectively), cooking area (combined vs separate; aOR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68– 1.00; P = 0.057), and whether mother is alive vs not alive (aOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.10– 3.94; P = 0.023).
Conclusion: The incidence of fall injuries among children at home in Ujjain, India, was similar to other resource constraint settings. The incidence was higher in rural areas, in the age group of 5– 10 years, and in families in which the mother was not alive. By contrast, large and combined families had a lower incidence of falls.

Keywords: childhood, epidemiology, nonfatal injuries, home injuries, India


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