Improving pain care through implementation of the Stepped Care Model at a multisite community health center
Authors Anderson DR, Zlateva I, Coman EN, Khatri K, Tian T, Kerns RD
Received 22 July 2016
Accepted for publication 24 August 2016
Published 11 November 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 1021—1029
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael E Schatman
Daren R Anderson,1 Ianita Zlateva,1 Emil N Coman,2 Khushbu Khatri,1 Terrence Tian,1 Robert D Kerns3
1Weitzman Institute, Community Health Center, Inc., Middletown, 2UCONN Health Disparities Institute, University of Connecticut, Farmington, 3VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA
Purpose: Treating pain in primary care is challenging. Primary care providers (PCPs) receive limited training in pain care and express low confidence in their knowledge and ability to manage pain effectively. Models to improve pain outcomes have been developed, but not formally implemented in safety net practices where pain is particularly common. This study evaluated the impact of implementing the Stepped Care Model for Pain Management (SCM-PM) at a large, multisite Federally Qualified Health Center.
Methods: The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework guided the implementation of the SCM-PM. The multicomponent intervention included: education on pain care, new protocols for pain assessment and management, implementation of an opioid management dashboard, telehealth consultations, and enhanced onsite specialty resources. Participants included 25 PCPs and their patients with chronic pain (3,357 preintervention and 4,385 postintervention) cared for at Community Health Center, Inc. Data were collected from the electronic health record and supplemented by chart reviews. Surveys were administered to PCPs to assess knowledge, attitudes, and confidence.
Results: Providers’ pain knowledge scores increased to an average of 11% from baseline; self-rated confidence in ability to manage pain also increased. Use of opioid treatment agreements and urine drug screens increased significantly by 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. Significant improvements were also noted in documentation of pain, pain treatment, and pain follow-up. Referrals to behavioral health providers for patients with pain increased by 5.96% (P=0.009). There was no significant change in opioid prescribing.
Conclusion: Implementation of the SCM-PM resulted in clinically significant improvements in several quality of pain care outcomes. These findings, if sustained, may translate into improved patient outcomes.
Keywords: quality improvement, primary care, chronic pain, community health, FQHC
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