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Immune inflammation indicators in anal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation: training and validation cohort with online calculator (ARC: Anal Cancer Response Classifier)

Authors Casadei-Gardini A, Montagnani F, Casadei C, Arcadipane F, Andrikou K, Aloi D, Prete AA, Zampino MG, Argentiero A, Pugliese G, Martini S, Iorio GC, Scartozzi M, Mistrangelo M, Fornaro L, Cassoni P, Marisi G, Dell'Acqua V, Ravenda PS, Lonardi S, Silvestris N, De Bari B, Ricardi U, Cascinu S, Franco P

Received 6 December 2018

Accepted for publication 19 February 2019

Published 26 April 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 3631—3642

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S197349

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Antonella D'Anneo


Andrea Casadei-Gardini,1 Francesco Montagnani,2 Chiara Casadei,1 Francesca Arcadipane,3 Kalliopi Andrikou,4 Deborah Aloi,5 Alessandra Anna Prete,6,7 Maria Giulia Zampino,8 Antonella Argentiero,9 Giuseppe Pugliese,4 Stefania Martini,10 Giuseppe Carlo Iorio,10 Mario Scartozzi,11 Massimiliano Mistrangelo,12 Lorenzo Fornaro,13 Paola Cassoni,14 Giorgia Marisi,15 Veronica Dell’Acqua,16 Paola Simona Ravenda,8 Sara Lonardi,6 Nicola Silvestris,7 Berardino De Bari,5 Umberto Ricardi,3 Stefano Cascinu,4 Pierfrancesco Franco9

1Department of Medical Oncology, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Meldola, Italy; 2Oncology Department, SOC Oncology, ASL (Health Local Authority), Biella, Italy; 3Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza, Turin, Italy; 4Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; 5Radiation Oncology Department, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire “Jean Minjoz”, Besançon Cedex, France; 6Unit of Medical Oncology 1, Department of Clinical and Experimental Oncology, Istituto Oncologico Veneto, IRCCS, Padua, Italy; 7Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I University Hospital, Rome, Italy; 8Division of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology and Neuroendocrine Tumors, European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Milan, Italy; 9Medical Oncology Unit, Cancer Institute Giovanni Paolo II, Bari, Italy; 10Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 11Department of Medical Oncology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; 12Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 13Unit of Medical Oncology 2, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana University, Pisa, Italy; 14Department of Medical Sciences, Pathology Unit, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 15Biosciences Laboratory, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per Lo Studio e La Cura Dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Meldola, Italy; 16Department of Radiotherapy, IRCCS, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy

Background: In anal cancer, there are no markers nor other laboratory indexes that can predict prognosis and guide clinical practice for patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation. In this study, we retrospectively investigated the influence of immune inflammation indicators on treatment outcome of anal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
Methods: All patients had a histologically proven diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal/margin treated with chemoradiotherapy according to the Nigro’s regimen. Impact on prognosis of pre-treatment systemic index of inflammation (SII) (platelet x neutrophil/lymphocyte), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were analyzed.
Results: A total of 161 consecutive patients were available for the analysis. Response to treatment was the single most important factor for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). At univariate analysis, higher SII level was significantly correlated to lower PFS (p<0.01) and OS (p=0.046). NLR level was significantly correlated to PFS (p=0.05), but not to OS (p=0.06). PLR level significantly affected both PFS (p<0.01) and OS (p=0.02). On multivariate analysis pre-treatment, SII level was significantly correlated to PFS (p=0.0079), but not to OS (p=0.15). We developed and externally validated on a cohort of 147 patients a logistic nomogram using SII, nodal status and pre-treatment Hb levels. Results showed a good predictive ability with C-index of 0.74. An online available calculator has also been developed.
Conclusion: The low cost and easy profile in terms of determination and reproducibility make SII a promising tool for prognostic assessment in this oncological setting.

Keywords: NLR, PLR, SII, anal cancer, prognostic factors

Corrigendum for this paper has been published.

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