High rates of CTX-M group-1 extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli from pets and their owners in Faisalabad, Pakistan
Received 5 October 2018
Accepted for publication 26 January 2019
Published 6 March 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 571—578
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Sahil Khanna
Ghazanfar Abbas,1 Iahtasham Khan,2 Mashkoor Mohsin,1 Sajjad-ur-Rahman,1 Tayyaba Younas,1 Shahzad Ali3
1Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan; 2Section of Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Jhang, Pakistan; 3Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
Purpose: Pet animals have been considered a potential carrier of clinically important multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli. However, little is known about the role of pets as reservoirs of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli in Pakistan. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and genetic relatedness of ESBL-producing multidrug-resistant E. coli in pets, their owners, and veterinary professionals.
Methods: A total of 105 fecal samples were collected from dogs, cats, their owners, and veterinary professionals from veterinary clinics. Isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The presence of bla CTX-M genes and CTX-M groups I and II in multidrug-resistant E. coli was detected using PCR. Clonal diversity was checked using BOX-PCR.
Results: Of the 105 fecal samples screened, 73 (69.5%) were found to contain ESBL-producing E. coli. The percentage of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates in dogs and dog owners was found to be 81.8% (18/22) and 59% (13/22), respectively. In cats, this percentage was 73.9% (17/23) and in cat owners, 56.5% (13/23). Furthermore, 80% (12/15) of E. coli isolates in veterinary professionals were ESBL producers. Of these 73 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, 23 isolates exhibited a multidrug-resistant phenotype. The most prevalent multidrug-resistant pattern (17.4%) identified was resistant to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. In the multidrug-resistant E. coli, bla CTX-M was identified as the most common ESBL-producing genotype (19/23), with bla CTX-M-1 dominating in all 19 isolates. Furthermore, BOX-PCR analysis exhibited genetically diverse clonal groups among isolates of the CTX-M-1 group.
Conclusion: Our results provide important baseline information on the potential burden of multidrug-resistant E. coli among companion animals in Pakistan. Further studies are needed to understand the drivers of antimicrobial resistance at human–animal–environmental intersections.
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, ESBL-producing E. coli, pets, zoonosis, multidrug resistance, one-health
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