Health Service Utilization Among Out-of-Pocket Payers and Fee-Wavier Users in Saesie Tsaeda-Emba District, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study
Received 19 October 2020
Accepted for publication 11 February 2021
Published 18 February 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 695—703
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Marco Carotenuto
Ataklti Gessesse,1 Mezgebu Yitayal,2 Mihiretu Kebede,3,4 Getasew Amare2
1Tigray Public Health Institute, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 2Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 3Department of Health Informatics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 4Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany
Correspondence: Getasew Amare P.O. Box – 196, Gondar, Ethiopia
Background: Health service utilization among out-of-pocket payers and fee-wavier users and factors associated with it in Saesie Tsaeda-Emba District, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.
Methods: A comparative community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Northern Ethiopia. Households with at least one person who experienced illness during the last six months were included in the study. Data were collected using a structured and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the HSU.
Results: In this study, 652 individuals (489 OOP payers and 163 fee waiver users) participated with overall response rate of 98%. The overall HSU among the participants was 44.3% (41.9 for OOP users and 51.5% for fee waiver users). The study revealed that educational status (AOR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.59), family size (AOR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.97) and income level (AOR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.12, 3.90, and AOR = 4.12; 95% CI: 2.41, 7.53) were factors significantly associated with the HSU among OOP payers. The study also revealed that educational status (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.59), family size (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.97), income level (AOR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.21, 4.87), and payment mechanism (AOR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.34, 4.67 were significantly associated with the HSU among all study participants.
Conclusion: This study shows that the level of the HSU is low. Educational status, family size, economic status, and payment mechanism were significantly associated with the HSU. Therefore, improving the community’s educational level, promoting family planning, devising income-generating strategies, and strengthening the fee waiver mechanism may enhance the HSU.
Keywords: out-of-pocket payment, fee-waiver, health service utilization, Northern Ethiopia
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