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Green Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Copper Oxide Nanomaterial Derived from Momordica charantia

Authors Qamar H, Rehman S, Chauhan DK, Tiwari AK, Upmanyu V

Received 6 January 2020

Accepted for publication 29 March 2020

Published 16 April 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 2541—2553

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S240232

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo


Hina Qamar,1 Sumbul Rehman,2 Dushyant Kumar Chauhan,1 Ashok Kumar Tiwari,3 Vikramaditya Upmanyu3

1Department of Zoology, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2Department of Ilmul Advia (Unani Pharmacology), A.K. Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India; 3Biological Standardization Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence: Dushyant Kumar Chauhan
Department of Zoology, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut 250001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Tel +91 941 270 8983
Email drdushyant.zoology@gmail.com

Background: In the emerging field of nanotechnology, copper oxide (CuO) nanomaterials are considered to be one of the most important transition metal oxides owing to its fascinating properties. Its synthesis from green chemistry principles is gaining importance as next-generation antibiotics due to its simplicity, eco-friendliness, and cost-effectiveness. In the present study, CuO nanorods (CuO NRs) were synthesized from the aqueous fruit extract of Momordica charantia and characterized using different analytical techniques. Further, the biomedical therapeutic potential was evaluated against multi-drug resistant microbial strains.
Materials and Methods: To synthesize CuO NRs, 0.1M of CuSO4.5H2O solution was added to aqueous extract of Momordica charantia in a 1:3 (v/v) ratio (pH=11) and heated at 50°C followed by washing and drying. The synthesized CuO NRs were subjected to characterization using different analytical techniques such as UV visible spectroscopy, zeta sizer equipped with zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, the application as a biomedical therapeutic potential was evaluated in vitro using well diffusion method against eleven multidrug-resistant clinical bacterial strains, a fungus- Trichophyton rubrum and in ovo against the R2B virus using haemagglutination (HA) test.
Results: Characterization was preliminarily done by the spectral study that confirms the absorbance band at 245nm. FTIR analysis at 628 cm− 1 peak identified copper oxide vibration. SEM analysis revealed agglomerated particle clusters. However, with TEM clear nanorods of average diameter of 61.48 ± 2 nm were observed. EDAX confirmed CuO formation while XRD showed a typical monoclinic structure with 6 nm crystallite size. Biological screening of CuO NRs showed significant results against both in vitro and in ovo methods. Significant inhibitory activity (p< 0.0001) was noted against most of the resistant human pathogenic strains including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The highest efficacy was observed against Bacillus cereus with a 31.66 mm zone of inhibition. Besides, the therapeutic potential of CuO NRs against Corynebacterium xerosis, Streptococcus viridians and R2B strain of Newcastle disease is reported for the first time.
Conclusion: Based on the present results, it could be expected that green synthesized CuO NRs would find potential applications in the field of nanomedicine.

Keywords: copper oxide nanorods, CuO NRs, biosynthesis, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, Trichophyton rubrum, multidrug-resistance, TEM, R2B Newcastle disease virus

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