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Glycemic control and diabetes complications among diabetes mellitus patients attending at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

Authors Fasil A, Biadgo B, Abebe M

Received 28 August 2018

Accepted for publication 16 November 2018

Published 21 December 2018 Volume 2019:12 Pages 75—83


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou

Alebachew Fasil, Belete Biadgo, Molla Abebe

Department of Clinical Chemistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to either insulin deficiency or resistance or both. Hyperglycemia induces tissue damage through mitochondrial superoxide production, affecting retina, glomerulus, and neurons. It requires continuing medical care and ongoing self-care management to prevent and delay acute and long-term complications. Therefore, our study was designed to assess glycemic control and diabetes complications among diabetes patients attending at University of Gondar Hospital.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among DM patients attending at University of Gondar Hospital diabetes follow-up clinic during February–March 2017. Five milliliters of blood was collected using aseptic technique. Levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglycerides, and cholesterol were measured using MINDRAY BS-200E machine. FBS ≥152 mg/dL was taken as poor glycemic control. Binary and multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associated risk factors for the outcome variable. A P-value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Result: Three hundred sixty-seven diabetes patients were included in this study. About 222 (60.5%) of them had poor glycemic control (FBS ≥152 mg/dL). The proportion of poor glycemic control was slightly higher among type 1 DM patients (61.4%) than type 2 DM patients (59.8%). Age ≥65 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.070; 95% CI: 0.016–0.308), being divorced (AOR: 0.226; 95% CI: 0.064–0.8000), and increased waist circumference (AOR: 0.361: 95% CI: 0.181–0.720) were factors that significantly reduce poor glycemic control. Diabetes complications were slightly higher in insulin- and tablet-only users, 72.5% and 64.5%, respectively. DM complications were also higher in patients who had poor glycemic control (61/222) and type 2 diabetes (78 [37.3%]).
Conclusion: Prevalence of poor glycemic control and DM complications was high, which indicate that appropriate intervention is required to improve glycemic control and prevent or control complications among DM patients.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, glycemic control, diabetes complications, Ethiopia

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