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From amino acids polymers, antimicrobial peptides, and histones, to their possible role in the pathogenesis of septic shock: a historical perspective

Authors Ginsburg I, van Heerden PV, Koren E

Received 31 October 2016

Accepted for publication 29 November 2016

Published 1 February 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 7—15

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S126150

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Ning Quan

Isaac Ginsburg,1 Peter Vernon van Heerden,2 Erez Koren1

1Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dental Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2General Intensive Care Unit, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel

Abstract: This paper describes the evolution of our understanding of the biological role played by synthetic and natural antimicrobial cationic peptides and by the highly basic nuclear histones as modulators of infection, postinfectious sequelae, trauma, and coagulation phenomena. The authors discuss the effects of the synthetic polymers of basic poly α amino acids, poly l-lysine, and poly l-arginine on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, bacterial killing, and blood vessels; the properties of natural and synthetic antimicrobial cationic peptides as potential replacements or adjuncts to antibiotics; polycations as opsonizing agents promoting endocytosis/phagocytosis; polycations and muramidases as activators of autolytic wall enzymes in bacteria, causing bacteriolysis and tissue damage; and polycations and nuclear histones as potential virulence factors and as markers of sepsis, septic shock, disseminated intravasclar coagulopathy, acute lung injury, pancreatitis, trauma, and other additional clinical disorders

Keywords: histones, sepsis, septic shock

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