Extraordinary Dynamic Near Vision in Champion Shotgun Shooters: PDI Check Evaluation of Stereo and Color without Floor Effect
Received 21 December 2020
Accepted for publication 25 January 2021
Published 16 February 2021 Volume 2021:15 Pages 575—581
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Steven Brown,1 Clayton Rue,2 Kyle Smith,3 Robert Arnold4
1Martin Methodist University, Pulaski, TN, USA; 2NSCA Level III Instructor, Anchorage, AK, USA; 3Accurate Vision, Anchorage, AK, USA; 4Alaska Blind Child Discovery, Alaska Children’s EYE & Strabismus, Anchorage, AK, USA
Correspondence: Robert Arnold
The Alaska Blind Child Discovery, Alaska Children’s EYE & Strabismus, 3500 Latouche #280, Anchorage, AK, 99508, USA
Tel +1 (907)561-1917
Fax +1 (907)563-5373
Background: Conventional near and stereo tests have a “floor effect;” inability to discriminate normal from super-normal. Shotgun champions require unique performance in binocularity and rapid color discrimination.
Patients and Methods: Twenty-nine champion clay-target shooters, 14 normal Army and 12 color-normal subjects were tested with conventional near vision tests and on PDI-Check, a series of dynamic, near vision tests on the autostereoscopic Nintendo console.
Results: Conventional tested shotgunners had all perfect Ishihara and 75% best 40 sec Stereo fly while Army had 92%perfect Ishihara and 69% best stereo fly. On PDI-Check, experienced shotgunners with median stereo of 17 (IQR 12– 41) arc sec were better than Army volunteers 59 (IQR 30 to 487) arc seconds (Mann–Whitney U=62, p=0.04). Median PDI-Check for shotgun compared to Army was 88% compared to 84% for blue cone, 90% compared to 84% for green and 77% compared to 72% (red, Mann–Whitney p=0.05). Adding dark cherry filter shooting glasses improved the red and green color detection (p< 0.01). This study lacked power to detect eye dominance using PDI Check color or stereo.
Conclusion: Many champion shotgun shooters had outstanding dynamic near stereo and better-than-average color vision which could be optimized with dark filter spectacles for red and green hues. PDI Check not only helps identify abnormal binocularity and color vision, but it can clarify supranormal vision as well.
Keywords: stereopsis, eye dominance, color vision
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]