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Extracellular Hsp90α clinically correlates with tumor malignancy and promotes migration and invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Authors Wang X, An D, Wang X, Liu X, Li B

Received 22 November 2018

Accepted for publication 15 January 2019

Published 11 February 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 1119—1128


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Federico Perche

Xintong Wang,1 Dianzheng An,1 Xinlei Wang,2 Xiaomeng Liu,3 Baosheng Li1

1Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Gastroenterology, Qingdao Hiser Medical Center, Qingdao, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 3University of Jinan, School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China

Purpose: Extracellular Hsp90α (eHsp90α) is known to be involved in tumor invasiveness and metastasis, and its prognostic value in many kinds of tumors has been identified. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and functional role of eHsp90α in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
Patients and methods: A total of 193 patients with newly diagnosed ESCC were retrospectively evaluated. The relationship between serum Hsp90α levels before treatment and ESCC malignancy of the patients was analyzed. To test the role of eHsp90α in migration and invasion of ESCC cell lines, transwell assay was performed. Western blotting was used to explore the possible mechanism in which eHsp90α promotes ESCC migration and invasion.
Results: We found that the serum Hsp90α level before treatment is positively correlated with ESCC malignancy. Moreover, high serum Hsp90α level before treatment was significantly correlated with positive lymph node (LN) metastasis, which is the main prognostic factor for ESCC patients. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that eHsp90α promoted migration and invasion of ECA109 and ECA9706 in vitro. Further investigations revealed that eHsp90α stabilized MMP-2 and promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition evidenced by downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of N-cadherin. On the other hand, Hsp90α neutralizing antibody functionally blocked the secreted Hsp90α and reversed those effects.
Conclusion: Our findings prove the critical role of eHsp90α in promoting ESCC migration and invasion, indicating it can be not only a promising predictor for ESCC LN status, but also an effective target in ESCC therapeutics, especially in preventing LN metastasis.

Keywords: extracellular Hsp90α, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, lymph node metastasis, migration, invasion, MMP-2

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