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Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the cell-free filtrate of nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans

Authors Costa Silva LP, Oliveira JP, Keijok WJ, da Silva AR, Aguiar AR, Guimarães MCC, Ferraz CM, Araújo JV, Tobias FL, Braga FR

Received 22 March 2017

Accepted for publication 9 May 2017

Published 31 August 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 6373—6381

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S137703

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Israel (Rudi) Rubinstein


Laryssa Pinheiro Costa Silva,1 Jairo Pinto Oliveira,2 Wanderson Juvencio Keijok,2 André Romero da Silva,3 Anderson Rocha Aguiar,1 Marco Cesar Cunegundes Guimarães,2 Carolina Magri Ferraz,1 Jackson Victor Araújo,4 Fernando Luiz Tobias,5 Fábio Ribeiro Braga1

1Department of Parasitology, University Vila Velha, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 2Morphology Department, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 3Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo, Aracruz, Espírito Santo, Brazil; 4Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 5Department of Microbiology, University Vila Velha, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo, Brazil

Abstract: The biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) using biological systems such as fungi has evolved to become an important area of nanobiotechnology. Herein, we report for the first time the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver NPs (AgNPs) using the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001). The fungal cell-free filtrate was analyzed by the Bradford method and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid assay and used to synthesize the AgNPs in the presence of a 1 mM AgNO3 solution. They have been characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopes. UV–Vis spectroscopy confirmed bioreduction, while X-ray diffractometry established the crystalline nature of the AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy images showed approximately 11, 38 nm monodisperse and quasispherical AgNPs. Zeta potential analysis was able to show a considerable stability of AgNPs. The N–H stretches in Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicate the presence of protein molecules. The Raman bands suggest that chitinase was involved in the growth and stabilization of AgNPs, through the coating of the particles. Our results show that the NPs we synthesized have good stability, high yield, and monodispersion.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, nematophagous fungi, Duddingtonia flagrans

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