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Expression of CLIC1 as a potential biomarker for oral squamous cell carcinoma: a preliminary study

Authors Xu Y, Xu J, Feng J, Li J, Jiang C, Li X, Zou S, Wang Q, Li Y

Received 1 August 2018

Accepted for publication 5 October 2018

Published 12 November 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 8073—8081

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S181936

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Sanjeev Srivastava


Ying Xu,1–3,* Jie Xu,1–3,* Jiali Feng,1–3 Jie Li,1–3 Chao Jiang,1–3 Xian Li,1–3 Sihai Zou,1–3 Qian Wang,1–3 Yong Li1–3

1College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China; 2Chongqing Key Laboratory for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing, China; 3Chongqing Municipal Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Engineering of Higher Education, Chongqing, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Purpose: CLIC1, a member of the highly conserved class ion-channel protein family, is frequently upregulated in multiple human malignancies and has been demonstrated to play a critical role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. However, limited is known about its expression, biological functions, and action mechanism in oral malignancies. We aimed to evaluate whether CLIC1 could be a biomarker for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expression of CLIC1 in tissue. CLIC1 protein and mRNA were measured through Western immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR. CLIC1 protein expression in plasma was detected via ELISA. A total of 72 OSCC specimens were recruited in this study for evaluation of correlations of CLIC1 with clinicopathological features and survival.
Results: CLIC1 was significantly overexpressed in tissue and plasma of OSCC patients. It was found that upregulated CLIC1 was distinctly correlated with histological grade, TNM stage, and tumor size. Meanwhile, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that OSCC patients with high CLIC1 expression had remarkably poorer overall survival rate than those with low CLIC1 expression. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that CLIC1 was the independent prognostic factor for overall survival rate of OSCC patients. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis showed that CLIC1 was associated with multiple tumor-associated genes.
Conclusion: These results indicated that CLIC1 acts as a molecular target in OSCC and may present a novel diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for OSCC.

Keywords:
chloride intracellular channel 1, oral squamous cell carcinoma, expression, prognosis, biomarker

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