Evaluation of α-synuclein and apolipoprotein E as potential biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid to monitor pharmacotherapeutic efficacy in dopamine dictated disease states of Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia
Authors Gupta AK, Pokhriyal R, Das U, Khan MI, Ratna Kumar D, Gupta R, Chadda RK, Ramachandran R, Goyal V, Tripathi M, Hariprasad G
Received 15 February 2019
Accepted for publication 5 June 2019
Published 19 July 2019 Volume 2019:15 Pages 2073—2085
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder
Ashish Kumar Gupta,1 Ruchika Pokhriyal,1 Uddipan Das,1 Mohd Imran Khan,1 Domada Ratna Kumar,1 Rishab Gupta,2 Rakesh Kumar Chadda,2 Rashmi Ramachandran,3 Vinay Goyal,4 Manjari Tripathi,4 Gururao Hariprasad1
1Department of Biophysics; 2Department of Psychiatry; 3Department of Anaesthesia; 4Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
Background and objective: Dopamine plays an important role in the disease pathology of Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. These two neuropsychiatric disorders represent disease end points of the dopaminergic spectrum where Parkinson’s disease represents dopamine deficit and schizophrenia represents dopamine hyperactivity in the mid-brain. Therefore, current treatment strategies aim to restore normal dopamine levels. However, during treatment patients develop adverse effects due to overshooting of physiological levels of dopamine leading to psychosis in Parkinson’s disease, and extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia. Absence of any laboratory tests hampers modulation of pharmacotherapy. Apolipoprotein E and α-synuclein have an important role in the neuropathology of these two diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of apolipoprotein E and α-synuclein in patients with these two diseases so that they may serve as biomarkers to monitor therapy in Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia.
Methods: Drug-naïve Parkinson’s disease patients and Parkinson’s disease patients treated with dopaminergic therapy, neurological controls, schizophrenic patients treated with antidopaminergic therapy, and drug-naïve schizophrenic patients were recruited for the study and CSF was collected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were carried out to estimate the concentrations of apolipoprotein E and α-synuclein. Pathway analysis was done to establish a possible role of these two proteins in various pathways in these two dopamine dictated diseases.
Results: Apolipoprotein E and α-synuclein CSF concentrations have an inverse correlation along the entire dopaminergic clinical spectrum. Pathway analysis convincingly establishes a plausible hypothesis for their co-regulation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Each protein by itself or as a combination has encouraging sensitivity and specificity values of more than 55%.
Conclusion: The dynamic variation of these two proteins along the spectrum is ideal for them to be pursued as pharmacotherapeutic biomarkers in CSF to monitor pharmacological efficacy in Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia.
Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, dopamine, apolipoprotein E, α-synuclein, biomarkers, treatment monitoring
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