Evaluation of a smartphone photoscreening app to detect refractive amblyopia risk factors in children aged 1–6 years
Authors Arnold RW, O'Neil JW, Cooper KL, Silbert DI, Donahue SP
Received 22 April 2018
Accepted for publication 1 June 2018
Published 23 August 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 1533—1537
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Robert W Arnold,1 James W O’Neil,2 Kim L Cooper,3 David I Silbert,4 Sean P Donahue5
1Alaska Children’s Eye & Strabismus, Anchorage, AK, USA; 2Phoenix Children’s Medical Group-Ophthalmology, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 3Pediatric Ophthalmology & Family Eye Care, Burlingame, CA, USA; 4Conestoga Eye, Lancaster, PA, USA; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
Purpose: To determine the specificity and sensitivity of a smartphone app (GoCheckKids [GCK] used as a photoscreening tool on the iPhone 7 to detect refractive amblyopia risk factors in children aged 1–6 years.
Participants and methods: A prospective, multicenter, 10-month evaluation of children aged 1–6 years old who underwent photoscreening with the GCK app to detect amblyopia risk factors. The first acceptable quality photograph of each study subject was evaluated by trained technicians using GCK’s proprietary automated image processing algorithm to analyze for amblyopia risk factors. Trained graders, masked to the cycloplegic clinical data, remotely reviewed photographs taken with the app and compared results to the gold standard pediatric ophthalmology examinations using the 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus amblyopia risk factor guidelines. Primary outcome was the ability of the GCK app to identify amblyopia risk factors compared to the cycloplegic refraction.
Results: There were 287 patient images analyzed. The overall sensitivity and specificity in detecting amblyopia risk factors were 76% and 85%, respectively using manual grading. The overall automated grading results had a sensitivity and sensitivity in detecting amblyopia risk factors of 65% and 83%, respectively.
Conclusion: The GCK smartphone app is a viable photoscreening device for the detection of amblyopia risk factors in children aged 1–6 years.
Keywords: Apple iPhone, pediatric, instrument-based screening, lazy eye, blindness, cost-effective, childfriendly
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