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Diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease: progress and future prospects

Authors Patel R, Goldman J

Received 4 April 2015

Accepted for publication 16 June 2015

Published 29 July 2015 Volume 2015:5 Pages 19—32


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Abdul Qayyum Rana

Roshni A Patel,1 Jennifer G Goldman2

1Rush Medical College, Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Section of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders, Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA

Abstract: This review focuses on methods for diagnosing Parkinson’s disease (PD), highlighting clinical, pathological, and biomarker-driven approaches. For each of these diagnostic approaches, the past, present, and future prospects of diagnosing PD will be explored. Our understanding of PD – its pathogenesis and clinical spectrum – is ever changing. PD is now recognized as a complex multisystem disorder with motor and nonmotor features, including those preceding the onset of classic motor features as well as different phenotypes, often associated with different genetic mutations. Theories regarding the pathophysiology of PD and the role of α-synuclein, its deposition outside of the central nervous system, and possible progression or propagation are discussed. It has been almost 200 years since James Parkinson first described this disorder, and since then, our understanding of the disease process has evolved and become more sophisticated. However, the clinical diagnostic criteria used have remained fairly static for decades. Proposals for redefining PD’s diagnostic criteria incorporate clinical, pathological, and biomarker-driven elements, individually and/or collectively, and may need to consider whether individualized risk and personalized profiles could be ascertained.

Keywords: α-synuclein, biomarker, cerebrospinal fluid, imaging, neuropathology

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