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Diabetes and dyslipidemia: characterizing lipoprotein metabolism

Authors Tomkin GH, Owens D

Received 18 April 2017

Accepted for publication 7 June 2017

Published 28 July 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 333—343

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S115855

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou


GH Tomkin,1,2 D Owens1,2

1Diabetes Institute of Ireland, Beacon Hospital, 2Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Abstract: Premature atherosclerosis in diabetes accounts for much of the decreased life span. New treatments have reduced this risk considerably. This review explores the relationship among the disturbances in glucose, lipid, and bile salt metabolic pathways that occur in diabetes. In particular, excess nutrient intake and starvation have major metabolic effects, which have allowed us new insights into the disturbance that occurs in diabetes. Metabolic regulators such as the forkhead transcription factors, the farnesyl X transcription factors, and the fibroblast growth factors have become important players in our understanding of the dysregulation of metabolism in diabetes and overnutrition. The disturbed regulation of lipoprotein metabolism in both the intestine and the liver has been more clearly defined over the past few years, and the atherogenicity of the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and – in tandem – low levels of high-density lipoproteins, is seen now as very important. New information on the apolipoproteins that control lipoprotein lipase activity has been obtained. This is an exciting time in the battle to defeat diabetic atherosclerosis.

Keywords: obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, low-density lipoprotein, fibroblast growth factor, forkhead transcription factor O1, farnesyl X transcription factors
 

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