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Determinants of Undernutrition Among Adult People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Goba Hospital, Southeast Ethiopia: A Case–Control Study

Authors Kalil FS, Kabeta T, Jarso H, Hasen M, Ahmed J, Kabeta S

Received 10 August 2020

Accepted for publication 30 September 2020

Published 28 October 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 223—236

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDS.S276311

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Chandrika Piyathilake


Falaho Sani Kalil,1 Teshome Kabeta,2 Habtemu Jarso,2 Mohammed Hasen,3 Jemal Ahmed,4 Shukuri Kabeta3

1Negelle Borena Health Science College, Oromia, Negelle Borena, Ethiopia; 2Jimma University, Institute of Health, Faculty of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Public Health Emergency Management Coordination Office, East Bale Zonal Health Department, Ginnir, Ethiopia; 4Department of Nutrition, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Teshome Kabeta
Jimma University, Institute of Health, Faculty of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Jimma, Ethiopia
Tel +251911794169
Email tka1204@gmail.com

Background: Nutritional status affects effectiveness and adherence to antiretroviral therapy, survival status, and quality-of-life in people living with human immunodeficiency virus. Prevalence of undernutrition among HIV infected people in Ethiopia ranges from 12.3% to 55.6%.
Objective: To identify determinants of undernutrition among adult people on antiretroviral therapy in Goba Hospital, Southeast Ethiopia.
Methods: A facility-based case–control study was conducted on 276 study participants from March 16 to May 26, 2019. Nutritional status was determined by body mass index (BMI), where BMI< 18.5 kg/m2 was defined as malnutrition. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data by face-to-face interview. Data were entered into Epi-data version 4.4 and then exported to SPSS version 23 for analyses. Bivariable and multiple binary logistic regression were fitted. Multicollinearity was checked among candidate variables using variance inflation factor. P-value< 0.05 was considered statistically significant and AORs at 95% CIs was used to assess the strength of association.
Results: The response rate of participants was 97% among cases and 95% among controls. Nearly two-thirds (65%) of cases and 54.3% of controls were females. Factors significantly associated with undernutrition were household food insecurity (AOR=3.24, 95% CI=1.72– 6.08), depression (AOR=2.07, 95% CI=1.16– 3.72), current alcohol consumption (AOR=3.80, 95% CI=1.71– 8.43), and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (AOR=2.61, 95% CI=1.28– 5.30).
Conclusion: Household food insecurity, depression, current alcohol consumption, and non-adherence to ART were associated with undernutrition. Strengthening the strategies and programs that target food assistance besides therapeutic interventions, addressing problems related to adherence of ART, incorporating psychosocial information about depression and substance use during counseling provided by healthcare providers for PLHIV and further longitudinal study were recommended.

Keywords: undernutrition, HIV, antiretroviral therapy, case control, Ethiopia

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