Depressogenic medications and other risk factors for depression among Polish patients with epilepsy
Authors Bosak M, Turaj W, Dudek D, Siwek M, Szczudlik A
Received 1 July 2015
Accepted for publication 5 August 2015
Published 30 September 2015 Volume 2015:11 Pages 2509—2517
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder
Magdalena Bosak,1 Wojciech Turaj,1 Dominika Dudek,2 Marcin Siwek,2 Andrzej Szczudlik1
1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Psychiatry, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression among patients with epilepsy and to establish the risk factors of depression in that group, with special focus on the use of potentially depressogenic medications.
Patients and methods: We studied 289 consecutive patients who visited epilepsy outpatient clinic (University Hospital of Krakow) and met inclusion criteria. All patients were screened with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and those with BDI score ≥12 were further evaluated by a psychiatrist.
Results: Mean age of patients was 35.7 years, and mean duration of epilepsy was 14.7 years. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy was diagnosed in 63 patients (21.8%), focal epilepsy was found in 189 subjects (65.4%), and unclassified epilepsy was diagnosed in 37 patients (12.8%). Frequent seizures (>1 per month) were reported in 107 patients (37.0%). Thirty-five patients (12.1%) reported an ongoing treatment with one or more of the predefined potentially depressogenic medication (ß-blockers, combined estrogen and progestogen, corticosteroid, or flunarizine). In a group of 115 patients (39.8%) who scored ≥12 points in BDI, depression was finally diagnosed in 84 subjects (29.1%) after psychiatric evaluation. Only 20 of those patients (23.8%) were treated with antidepressant. Independent variables associated with the diagnosis of depression in the logistic regression model included frequent seizures (odds ratio [OR] =2.43 [95% confidence interval, 95% CI =1.38–4.29], P=0.002), use of potentially depression-inducing medications (OR =3.33 [95% CI =1.50–7.39], P=0.003), age (OR =1.03 [95% CI =1.01–1.05] per year], P=0.005), and use of oxcarbazepine (OR =2.26 [95% CI =1.04–4.9], P=0.038).
Conclusion: The prevalence of depression among consecutive Polish patients with epilepsy reached 29.1%. Less than quarter of them received antidepressant treatment at the moment of evaluation. Independent variables associated with depression included age, frequent seizures, and the use of oxcarbazepine or predefined depressogenic medications.
Keywords: epilepsy, depression, medication, seizures, risk factors, side effects
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