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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Children: Prevalence, Diagnosis, Clinical Symptoms, and Treatment

Authors Zare-Zardini H, Soltaninejad H, Ferdosian F, Hamidieh AA, Memarpoor-Yazdi M

Received 14 May 2020

Accepted for publication 14 July 2020

Published 28 July 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 477—482


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Hadi Zare-Zardini, 1, 2 Hossein Soltaninejad, 3 Farzad Ferdosian, 4 Amir Ali Hamidieh, 5 Mina Memarpoor-Yazdi 6

1Department of Sciences, Farhangian University, Isfahan, Iran; 2Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; 3Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Pediatrics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; 5Pediatric Cell Therapy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 6Faculty of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Correspondence: Mina Memarpoor-Yazdi
Faculty of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract: In this article, we have reviewed the prevalence, diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment of COVID-19 in children. The incidence of COVID-19 among children under 18 years was 2.1% based on the reported studies, where the mortality rate in the same age group was 0.2%. No death has been reported in children under 9-years old. There are some articles that report children with COVID-19 having symptoms similar to Kawasaki’s disease. In these cases, heart complications were observed. The best markers for diagnosing the severity of the disease in children are the levels of bilirubin and hepatic enzymes. Large number of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on cell surfaces, effective innate immune system, and high level of blood lymphocyte have been reported to be the potent reasons for lower incidence of severe symptoms of COVID-19 among children. Children can very well be the carriers of this virus. Children with severe COVID-19 clinical symptoms, especially those suffering from pneumonia, must be hospitalized similar to adults, while quarantine is required for those having mild symptoms. Antiviral medication (lopinavir, darunavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, tocilizumab, and umifenovir), ACE inhibitors, interferon-α 2b, co-therapy with azithromycin, inhaling iNO, and oxygen therapy can be used for treatment. For the treatment of children without any clinical and infection symptoms, home isolation protocol has been recommended.

Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, children, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, infectious

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