COPD Management in Community Pharmacy Results in Improved Inhaler Use, Immunization Rate, COPD Action Plan Ownership, COPD Knowledge, and Reductions in Exacerbation Rates
Received 27 October 2020
Accepted for publication 25 January 2021
Published 2 March 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 519—533
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Mariam Fathima,1 Zeeta Bawa,1 Bernadette Mitchell,1 Juliet Foster,1 Carol Armour,1 Bandana Saini1,2
1Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Glebe, New South Wales, Australia; 2School of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia
Correspondence: Bandana Saini Rm No. N348, Building No A15
The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, 2006, Australia
Tel +61 2 93516789
Fax +61 2 93514791
Email [email protected]
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot community pharmacy care model for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to improve: 1) inhaler technique; 2) medication adherence; and 3) uptake of non-pharmacological treatment and prevention activities.
Patients and Methods: Forty “host” pharmacies in Sydney were invited to recruit eligible patients and to provide a counselling room/area in their pharmacy for service provision. Eligible patients were referred to two “consultant” pharmacists, specifically trained to deliver a specialized pharmacy COPD service which involved 3 in-pharmacy visits and 2 follow-up phone calls over a 6-month period. The service consisted of 1) inhaler technique assessment; 2) medication adherence assessment; and 3) referrals to the patient’s general practitioner (GP) to facilitate the uptake of non-pharmacological resources as well as to review COPD medications/devices, as required. Pre-post analyses were conducted using paired Student’s t-test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test for independent variables and chi-squared tests for proportional data.
Results: Nine “host” pharmacies recruited 40 patients, of whom 37 completed the baseline Visit and 27 completed all Visits. A total of 270 interventions were provided by the “consultant” pharmacists with most provided at Visit 1 (176). The most common interventions were addressing patient gaps in COPD knowledge and inhaler technique. A total of 119 referrals were made to GPs for various reasons, the most common being for a COPD action plan, pulmonary rehabilitation, or pneumonia vaccination. There were significant improvements pre-post intervention in inhaler use competence, COPD knowledge, immunization rate for pneumonia, exacerbation rate and COPD plan ownership.
Conclusion: In this pilot study, the specialized pharmacy-based COPD care model delivered by “consultant” pharmacists in community pharmacies provided significant health benefits for patients. Further research is needed to assess the model’s effectiveness in a larger population as well as when measured against standard care.
Keywords: inhaler technique, medication review, consultant pharmacist, COPD
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