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Comparative evaluation of methods for the detection of biofilm formation in coagulase-negative staphylococci and correlation with antibiogram

Authors Shrestha LB, Bhattarai NR, Khanal B

Received 13 December 2017

Accepted for publication 23 February 2018

Published 24 April 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 607—613


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Editor who approved publication: Dr Joachim Wink

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Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are normal commensals of human skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of CNS among clinical isolates, characterize them up to species level, compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation, and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.
Materials and methods: CNS were obtained from various clinical samples including blood, urine, central venous catheter tips, endotracheal tube aspirate, and pus during a 1-year period (July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015). Characterization up to species level was done using biochemical tests, and biofilm formation was detected by tube adherence, Congo red agar, and tissue culture plate method. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.
Results: A total of 71 CNS isolates, comprising of seven species were obtained. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species followed by S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. We detected biofilm formation in 71.8% of isolates. Considering the fact that tissue culture plate method is the gold standard, sensitivity of tube adherence method and Congo red agar method was found as 82% and 78%, respectively. The isolates exhibited high resistance toward penicillin (90%), azithromycin (60%), co-trimoxazole (60%), and ceftriaxone (40%), while all were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Biofilm former isolates showed higher resistance than the non-formers.
Conclusion: Among 71 CNS isolated, S. epidermidis was the most common isolate followed by S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. Biofilm formation was detected in 71.8% of the isolates. All of the methods were effective in detecting biofilm-producing CNS strains. The antimicrobial resistance was significantly higher in biofilm formers than non-formers.

Keywords: CNS, Congo red agar, bloodstream infections, foreign body-related infections, tissue culture plate

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