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Comparative effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on the risk of pneumonia and severe exacerbations in patients with COPD

Authors Lai CC, Wang YH, Wang CY, Wang HC, Yu CJ, Chen L

Received 1 December 2017

Accepted for publication 3 January 2018

Published 8 March 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 867—874

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S158634

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Charles Downs

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Chunxue Bai

Chih-Cheng Lai,1 Ya-Hui Wang,2 Cheng-Yi Wang,3 Hao-Chien Wang,4 Chong-Jen Yu,4 Likwang Chen5

On behalf of the Taiwan Clinical Trial Consortium for Respiratory Diseases (TCORE)

1
Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Taiwan; 2Medical Research Center, Cardinal Tien Hospital and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Cardinal Tien Hospital and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan

Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on the risk of pneumonia and severe exacerbations in patients with COPD.
Patients and methods: All patients with COPD who used ACEis and ARBs for >90 days between 2000 and 2005 were recruited. Pairwise matching (1:1) of the ACEi and ARB groups resulted in two similar subgroups, with 6,226 patients in each. The primary outcomes were pneumonia and COPD exacerbations, and the secondary outcome was death.
Results: During the follow-up period, the incidence of pneumonia was 7.20 per 100 person-years in the ACEi group and 5.89 per 100 person-years in the ARB group. The ACEi group had a higher risk of pneumonia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.15–1.29) than the ARB group. The incidence of severe exacerbations was 0.65 per person-year for the patients receiving ACEis and 0.52 per person-year for those receiving ARBs. The patients receiving ACEis had a higher risk of severe exacerbations (aHR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.16–1.21) than those receiving ARBs. Similar trends were noted in terms of severe exacerbations requiring hospitalization (aHR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.21–1.28) or emergency department visits (aHR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.13–1.18), pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation (aHR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.24–1.47), and mortality (aHR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.26–1.42).
Conclusion: ARBs were associated with lower rates of pneumonia, severe pneumonia, and mortality than ACEis in patients with COPD.

Keywords: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, COPD, severe exacerbation, pneumonia, mortality

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