Clinical, physiological, and radiological features of asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome
Received 30 December 2014
Accepted for publication 19 March 2015
Published 15 May 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 947—954
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Toshio Suzuki, Yuji Tada, Naoko Kawata, Yukiko Matsuura, Jun Ikari, Yasunori Kasahara, Koichiro Tatsumi
Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
Background: Asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) is associated with rapid decline in lung function, poorer health-related quality-of-life outcomes, and frequent exacerbations, compared to COPD alone. Although the numbers of patients with ACOS have increased, there is little established evidence regarding diagnostic criteria and treatment options. Thus, the aim of our study was to clarify the clinical, physiological, and radiological features of patients with ACOS.
Methods: We examined a total of 100 patients with COPD and 40 patients with ACOS, who were selected based on clinical criteria. All patients underwent baseline testing, including a COPD assessment test, pulmonary function tests, and multidetector row computed tomography imaging. Percentage of low attenuation volume, percentage of wall area, and percentage of total cross-sectional area of pulmonary vessels less than 5 mm2 (%CSA <5) were determined using multidetector row computed tomography. ACOS patients were administered a fixed dose of budesonide/formoterol (160/4.5 µg, two inhalations; twice daily) for 12 weeks, after which the ACOS patients underwent multidetector row computed tomography to measure the same parameters.
Results: At baseline, the ACOS patients and COPD patients had a similar degree of airflow limitation, vital capacity, and residual volume. ACOS patients had higher COPD assessment test scores, percentage of wall area, and %CSA <5 than COPD patients. Compared to baseline, budesonide/formoterol treatment significantly increased the forced expiratory volume in 1 second and decreased the degree of airway wall thickness (percentage of wall area) as well as pulmonary microvascular density (%CSA <5) in ACOS patients.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that ACOS is characterized by an airway lesion–dominant phenotype, in contrast to COPD. Higher %CSA <5 might be a characteristic feature of ACOS.
Keywords: budesonide/formoterol, cross-sectional area (CSA), pulmonary vessels, percentage of wall area (WA%)
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