Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor. Results of a case–control study (CONSISTE study)
Authors Lucas P, Izquierdo JL, Gonzalez-Moro J, Fernandez Frances J, Lozano P, Bellon Cano
Received 21 July 2012
Accepted for publication 3 September 2012
Published 1 October 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 679—686
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Pilar de Lucas-Ramos,1,* Jose Luis Izquierdo-Alonso,2,* Jose Miguel Rodriguez-Gonzalez Moro,1 Jesus Fernandez Frances,2 Paz Vaquero Lozano,1 Jose M Bellón-Cano1,3 CONSISTE study group
1Servicio de Neumologia, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid, 2Servicio de Neumologia, Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 3Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid, Spain
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients present a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. This excess of comorbidity could be related to a common pathogenic mechanism, but it could also be explained by the existence of common risk factors. The objective of this study was to determine whether COPD patients present greater cardiovascular comorbidity than control subjects and whether COPD can be considered a risk factor per se.
Methods: 1200 COPD patients and 300 control subjects were recruited for this multicenter, cross-sectional, case–control study.
Results: Compared with the control group, the COPD group showed a significantly higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease (12.5% versus 4.7%; P < 0.0001), cerebrovascular disease (10% versus 2%; P < 0.0001), and peripheral vascular disease (16.4% versus 4.1%; P < 0.001). In the univariate risk analysis, COPD, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia were risk factors for ischemic heart disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for the remaining factors, COPD was still an independent risk factor (odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.18–4.24; P = 0.014).
Conclusion: COPD patients show a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, higher than expected given their age and the coexistence of classic cardiovascular risk factors.
Keywords: COPD, cardiovascular risk, ischemic heart disease
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