C-reactive protein is associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and obesity in type 2 diabetic Sudanese
Authors Dongway A, Faggad A, Zaki H, Abdalla B
Received 26 March 2015
Accepted for publication 3 June 2015
Published 4 September 2015 Volume 2015:8 Pages 427—435
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou
Angelo C Dongway,1 Areeg S Faggad,2,3 Hani Y Zaki,2 Badreldin E Abdalla,2,4
1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Upper Nile University, Malakal, South Sudan; 2Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, 3Department of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute-University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan; 4Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Background: Type 2 diabetes is emerging in Sudan and is associated with obesity. Deregulated lipid metabolism and inflammatory states are suggested risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is a leading cause of diabetic death. This study aimed to investigate C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the lipid profile in type 2 diabetic adult Sudanese compared with nondiabetics, and to test their associations with other characteristics.
Methods: A cross-sectional study including 70 diabetics and 40 nondiabetics was conducted. Anthropometric measurements were assessed, and demographic and medical data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Blood specimens were collected and biochemical parameters were analyzed applying standard methods.
Results: CRP and triglycerides were significantly higher in the diabetic group (P<0.001 and P=0.01, respectively). Differences in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were not statistically significant between the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. In the diabetic group, correlation analysis revealed that the CRP level had a significant positive correlation with LDL-C (r=0.255, P=0.034) and body mass index (r=0.29, P=0.016). Body mass index showed a significant positive correlation with triglycerides (r=0.386, P=0.001). Within the lipid parameters, a number of significant correlations were observed. Elevated levels of CRP, LDL-C, and triglycerides were markedly more prevalent in the diabetic group of patients. Diabetics showed significantly higher CRP levels compared with nondiabetics (odds ratio 5.56, P=0.001).
Conclusion: The high prevalence of obesity among diabetics, together with elevated levels of triglycerides and CRP, suggest coexistence of dyslipidemia and inflammation in diabetes. Our findings emphasize that diabetics were 5.6 times more likely to have high CRP levels than nondiabetics; as CRP is a predictor of cardiovascular disease risk, it can be recognized that diabetics are at more risk of cardiovascular disease than nondiabetics. Considering evaluation of CRP together with the lipid profile in prediction of cardiovascular disease risk in Sudanese diabetics should be further tested in large-scale studies.
Keywords: C-reactive protein, type 2 diabetes, lipid profile, obesity, cardiovascular disease, Sudanese
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