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Bipolar spectrum disorders and associated factors among adults attending an antiretroviral therapy clinic in Gedeo zone health centers, southern Ethiopia

Authors Belayneh Z, Alemu W, Mekuriaw B, Abebe Z

Received 16 September 2018

Accepted for publication 17 January 2019

Published 20 February 2019 Volume 2019:15 Pages 503—509

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S187669

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Justinn Cochran

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder


Zelalem Belayneh,1 Wagaye Alemu,2 Birhanie Mekuriaw,1 Zegeye Abebe3

1Department of Psychiatry, College of Health and Medical Science, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Health and Medical Science, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia; 3Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

Background: Bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) are more common among HIV-positive individuals than the general population. Although BPSDs have very diverse and devastating consequences (immune suppression, cognitive impairment and poor medication adherence), little is known about BPSDs among HIV-positive individuals in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of BPSDs among adults attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics in Gedeo zone health centers, southern Ethiopia.
Patients and methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted by screening 412 randomly selected HIV-positive individuals using Mood Disorder Questionnaire. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with BPSDs. Adjusted OR (AOR) with corresponding 95% CI was computed to determine the association.
Results: Of the total 412 participants, 11.2% were screened positive for BPSDs. Lower CD4 count (AOR =2.97; 95% CI: 1.11, 7.90), past history of mental health problem (AOR =3.35; 95% CI: 1.576, 7.144), poor social support (AOR =2.6; 95% CI: 1.06, 6.63) and poor ART drug adherence (AOR =3.59; 95% CI: 1.78, 7.21) had a positive association with BPSDs.
Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of BPSDs was high among adult patients attending ART clinics in Gedeo zone health centers. Poor social support, poor ART drug adherence, lower CD4 level and history of mental illness had statistically significant association with BPSDs. This demonstrates a need for the integration of Mental Health and Psycho Social Support with HIV/AIDS care services. Moreover, establishing good social support and controlling ART adherence were found to be very crucial too.

Keywords: bipolar spectrum disorder, HIV/AIDS, mental health, Ethiopia, mood disorders, Gedeo, Dilla

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