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Biofunctionalization of silicone rubber with microgroove-patterned surface and carbon-ion implantation to enhance biocompatibility and reduce capsule formation

Authors Lei ZY, Liu T, Li WJ, Shi XH, Fan DL

Received 16 May 2016

Accepted for publication 8 August 2016

Published 25 October 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 5563—5572

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S112902

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang


Ze-yuan Lei, Ting Liu, Wei-juan Li, Xiao-hua Shi, Dong-li Fan

Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, XinQiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, ChongQing, People’s Republic of China

Purpose: Silicone rubber implants have been widely used to repair soft tissue defects and deformities. However, poor biocompatibility can elicit capsule formation, usually resulting in prosthesis contracture and displacement in long-term usage. To overcome this problem, this study investigated the properties of silicone rubber materials with or without a microgroove-patterned surface and with or without carbon (C)-ion implantation.
Materials and methods: Atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and a water contact angle test were used to characterize surface morphology and physicochemical properties. Cytocompatibility was investigated by a cell adhesion experiment, immunofluorescence staining, a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and scanning electron microscopy in vitro. Histocompatibility was evaluated by studying the inflammatory response and fiber capsule formation that developed after subcutaneous implantation in rats for 7 days, 15 days, and 30 days in vivo.
Results: Parallel microgrooves were found on the surfaces of patterned silicone rubber (P-SR) and patterned C-ion-implanted silicone rubber (PC-SR). Irregular larger peaks and deeper valleys were present on the surface of silicone rubber implanted with C ions (C-SR). The silicone rubber surfaces with microgroove patterns had stable physical and chemical properties and exhibited moderate hydrophobicity. PC-SR exhibited moderately increased dermal fibroblast cell adhesion and growth, and its surface microstructure promoted orderly cell growth. Histocompatibility experiments on animals showed that both the anti-inflammatory and antifibrosis properties of PC-SR were slightly better than those of the other materials, and there was also a lower capsular contracture rate and less collagen deposition around implants made from PC-SR.
Conclusion: Although the surface chemical properties, dermal fibroblast cell growth, and cell adhesion were not changed by microgroove pattern modification, a more orderly cell arrangement was obtained, leading to enhanced biocompatibility and reduced capsule formation. Thus, this approach to the modification of silicone rubber, in combination with C-ion implantation, should be considered for further investigation and application.

Keywords:
silicone rubber, biocompatibility, capsule formation, microgroove, C-ion implantation

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