Bioactive Compounds from Germinated Brown Rice Protect Cardiomyocytes Against Simulated Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury by Ameliorating Mitochondrial Dysfunction
Received 16 December 2020
Accepted for publication 4 February 2021
Published 9 March 2021 Volume 2021:15 Pages 1055—1066
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Tuo Deng
Kanokwan Demeekul,1 Wichit Suthammarak,2 Soontaree Petchdee3
1Graduate School, Program of Bio-Veterinary Science, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand; 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Department of Large Animal and Wildlife Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand
Correspondence: Soontaree Petchdee
Department of Large Animal and Wildlife Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakorn Pathom, 73140, Thailand
Tel +66 34 351901-3
Fax +66 34 351405
Email [email protected]
Purpose: Ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the principal mechanism during Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD). The key modulator of I/R injury is dysregulation of mitochondria function. Germinated Brown Rice (GBR) has been recommended as a bio-functional food and has clarified the potential properties in several effects. However, the effect of GBR mediated cardioprotective properties, focusing on mitochondrial function’s role, remains unexplored. Thus, this study aims to investigate the cardioprotective effects of GBR pretreatment against simulated I/R injury.
Methods: H9c2 cardiomyocytes were incubated with GBR at a five ƞg/mL concentration for 24 hours and simulated I/R (sI/R) for 40 minutes. Cell viability and cell apoptosis were assessed by 7-AAD staining and Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. The mitochondrial membrane potential was determined by JC-1 staining and mitochondrial respiration represented by oxygen consumption rate (OCR) using Seahorse Flux analyzer.
Results: The results revealed that the administration of GBR before sI/R significantly decreased the percentage of cell death and total cell apoptosis in H9c2 during stimulation of ischemic/reperfusion. Besides, pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with GBR remarkably stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential and improved impaired mitochondrial respiration in simulated-H9c2 injury.
Conclusion: The present research is the first study to report the effective cardioprotection of GBR. Pretreatment of GBR potentially protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes against sI/R injury through mitochondrial function. The underlying therapeutic activities are possibly associated with its bio-functional compounds. However, the underlying mechanism on the cardioprotective effects of GBR needs further studies.
Keywords: cardioprotection, germinated brown rice, GBR, H9c2 cardiomyocyte, ischemia reperfusion injury, mitochondria function
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