Back to Journals » Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine » Volume 8

Barriers to typhoid fever vaccine access in endemic countries

Authors Khan MI, Franco-Paredes C, Sahastrabuddhe S, Ochiai RL, Mogasale V, BD Gessner

Received 19 August 2016

Accepted for publication 8 December 2016

Published 10 March 2017 Volume 2017:8 Pages 37—44


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Unnasch

M Imran Khan,1 Carlos Franco-Paredes,2,3 Sushant Sahastrabuddhe,4 R Leon Ochiai,5 Vittal Mogasale,4 Bradford D Gessner6

1Center of Excellence in Women and Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; 2Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, México DF., Mexico; 3Phoebe Putney Memorial Hospital, Albany, GA, USA; 4International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 5Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, 6Agence de Médecine Preventive, Ferney-Voltaire, France

Abstract: Typhoid vaccines have been available as a means of disease control and prevention since 1896; however, their use as a routine tool for disease prevention in endemic settings has been hampered because of: 1) insufficient data on disease burden particularly regarding the lack of health care access in the poorest communities affected by typhoid; 2) limitations of the typhoid vaccine, such as shorter duration of protection, moderate efficacy in young children, and no efficacy for infants; 3) inadequate evidence on potential economic benefits when used for a larger population; 4) neglect in favor of alternative interventions that require massive infrastructure; 5) no financial support or commitment regarding vaccine delivery cost; 6) ambivalence about whether to invest in water and sanitation hygiene versus the vaccine; and 7) clarity on global policy for country adoption. If current typhoid-protein conjugate vaccines live up to their promise of higher efficacy, longer duration of protection, and efficacy in young children, typhoid vaccine use will be a critical component of short- and medium-term disease control strategies. Typhoid control could be accelerated if the global framework includes plans for accelerated introduction of the conjugate typhoid vaccine in developing countries.

Keywords: typhoid fever, vaccines, policy, endemic countries, barriers, immunization

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]