Barriers to cervical cancer screening in Mulanje, Malawi: a qualitative study
Victoria K Fort1, Mary Sue Makin2, Aaron J Siegler1, Kevin Ault3, Roger Rochat1
1Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Mulanje Mission Hospital, Mulanje, Malawi; 3Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Background: In Malawi, cervical cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women, with an 80% mortality rate. The Mulanje Mission Hospital has offered free cervical cancer screening for eight years; however, patients primarily seek medical help for gynecologic complaints after the disease is inoperable.
Methods: We investigated how women in rural Malawi make health-seeking decisions regarding cervical cancer screening using qualitative research methods. The study was conducted between May and August of 2009 in Mulanje, Malawi.
Results: This study found that the primary cue to action for cervical cancer screening was symptoms of cervical cancer. Major barriers to seeking preventative screening included low knowledge levels, low perceived susceptibility and low perceived benefits from the service. Study participants did not view cervical cancer screening as critical health care. Interviews suggested that use of the service could increase if women are recruited while visiting the hospital for a different service.
Conclusion: This study recommends that health care providers and health educators target aspects of perceived susceptibility among their patients, including knowledge levels and personal risk assessment. We believe that continued support and advertisement of cervical cancer screening programs along with innovative recruitment strategies will increase usage density and decrease unnecessary deaths from cervical cancer in Malawi.
Keywords: cervical cancer, interviews, health care, Mulanje Mission Hospital
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