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The association of age of toilet training and dysfunctional voiding

Authors Hodges S, Richards K, Gorbachinsky I, Krane LS

Received 26 April 2014

Accepted for publication 30 June 2014

Published 3 October 2014 Volume 2014:6 Pages 127—130


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Video abstract presented by Steve J Hodges.

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Steve J Hodges, Kyle A Richards, Ilya Gorbachinsky, L Spencer Krane

Department of Urology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

Objective: To determine whether age of toilet training is associated with dysfunctional voiding in children.
Materials and methods: We compared patients referred to the urologic clinics for voiding dysfunction with age-matched controls without urinary complaints. Characteristics including age and reason for toilet training, method of training, and encopresis or constipation were compared between both groups.
Results: Initiation of toilet training prior to 24 months and later than 36 months of age were associated with dysfunctional voiding. However, dysfunctional voiding due to late toilet training was also associated with constipation.
Conclusion: Dysfunctional voiding may be due to delayed emptying of the bowel and bladder by children. The symptoms of dysfunctional voiding are more common when toilet training early, as immature children may be less likely to empty in a timely manner, or when training late due to (or in association with) constipation.

Keywords: voiding dysfunction, constipation

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