The association of age of toilet training and dysfunctional voiding
Steve J Hodges, Kyle A Richards, Ilya Gorbachinsky, L Spencer Krane
Department of Urology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
Objective: To determine whether age of toilet training is associated with dysfunctional voiding in children.
Materials and methods: We compared patients referred to the urologic clinics for voiding dysfunction with age-matched controls without urinary complaints. Characteristics including age and reason for toilet training, method of training, and encopresis or constipation were compared between both groups.
Results: Initiation of toilet training prior to 24 months and later than 36 months of age were associated with dysfunctional voiding. However, dysfunctional voiding due to late toilet training was also associated with constipation.
Conclusion: Dysfunctional voiding may be due to delayed emptying of the bowel and bladder by children. The symptoms of dysfunctional voiding are more common when toilet training early, as immature children may be less likely to empty in a timely manner, or when training late due to (or in association with) constipation.
Keywords: voiding dysfunction, constipation
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]