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Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms: effects of physicochemical factors, virulence, antibiotic resistance determinants, gene regulation, and future antimicrobial treatments

Authors Eze EC, Chenia HY, El Zowalaty ME

Received 1 April 2018

Accepted for publication 8 June 2018

Published 15 November 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 2277—2299


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Joachim Wink

Video presented by Eze C Emmanuel and Mohamed E El Zowalaty.

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Emmanuel C Eze,1 Hafizah Y Chenia,2 Mohamed E El Zowalaty1

1Virology and Microbiology Research Group, School of Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 2Discipline of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii is a leading cause of nosocomial infections due to its increased antibiotic resistance and virulence. The ability of A. baumannii to form biofilms contributes to its survival in adverse environmental conditions including hospital environments and medical devices. A. baumannii has undoubtedly propelled the interest of biomedical researchers due to its broad range of associated infections especially in hospital intensive care units. The interplay among microbial physicochemistry, alterations in the phenotype and genotypic determinants, and the impact of existing ecological niche and the chemistry of antimicrobial agents has led to enhanced biofilm formation resulting in limited access of drugs to their specific targets. Understanding the triggers to biofilm formation is a step towards limiting and containing biofilm-associated infections and development of biofilm-specific countermeasures. The present review therefore focused on explaining the impact of environmental factors, antimicrobial resistance, gene alteration and regulation, and the prevailing microbial ecology in A. baumannii biofilm formation and gives insights into prospective anti-infective treatments.

Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, biofilm, physicochemical, antibiotics, resistance, in vivo model, virulence, treatment

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